Electricity utilization will not be complete if the source and
transportation in not discussed.
Thus, the process of getting electricity to consumers or to our homes, offices and industries involves three processes; Generation, transmission and Distribution but starts with Generation which is the function of the power station. According to Wikipedia, Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from other sources of primary energy. The primary energy can be water, gas, sun, steam, wind, fossil, waste, etc.
Electric power irrespective of its source actually starts from generation
which is the function of power stations. The power plant uses different sources
of energy into the mechanical driver called Turbine. Some use water (called
hydroelectric generation), others use natural gas (as in the case of Afam Power
Plc) or steam or coal (all grouped into thermal generating units). However, all
the generating units use the same principle but different source of energy into
In all, the electricity generated in the power stations are generated
between 11.5-16KV and stepped up by a step up transformer to 330KV.
The next stage is the Transmission. Transmission begins with the transportation
of voltage 330KV with transmission lines (known as Conductors) and being
stepped down by a transformer to 132KV at transmission substation, whereby the
voltage is further transported along transmission lines to Injection
substations and stepped down to 33KV.
The distribution of electricity now starts at this point. The voltage is
stepped down by a distribution transformer to 11KV which in turn is stepped
down to 0.415KV and further stepped down to 220V before it gets to the
However, these transformers have secondary windings connected in star form
to create room for a neutral point. The star point forms the neutral line
making it a 3 phase, 4 wire networking. The distribution voltage is 415V while
consumable voltage is 415V for 3phase equipments and 220V for single phase.
There is no requirement for voltage transformation as the neutral serves as
reducer. (Line Voltage = phase voltage = 415V = 220V